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Introduction and history of Triangle Education in Kazakhstan

Introduction and history of Triangle Education in Kazakhstan

Rysbekova Kaliyash Kurmanbekkyzy
Kyzylorda oblast
Shielee region
An English teacher of School-lyceum №46

More and more Kazakh people, living in the Republic of Kazakhstan, are loosing their own language because they use Russian in their everyday speech. Kazakhstan is an independent country with its own national cultural heritages, including its own language. Unfortunately, this fact is ignored by millions of those Kazakhs, especially by the youth, who prefer to use Russian language everywhere, whether at home or public places. These people don’t recognize the possibility of losing their own language and, maybe, their own culture in the near future, if they continue using Russian in daily life in their home country.
Language problem in Kazakhstan emerged, in 1920-1990s, during decades of Soviet cultural and political domination, when almost all people in the Republic were required to speak Russian whether they are Russians or not. It wasn’t forbidden to speak Kazakh, but if people did not know Russian well, they would not succeed and couldn’t get highly-paid jobs; they were thought to be uneducated and belonged to a lower social class. Since that time, most families were sending their children to Russian schools and tried to speak primarily Russian at home. And nowadays, when those children have grown up, most don’t speak Kazakh while some don’t even know the language at all. You will be surprised to know the fact, that if a Kazakh young man approaches to a Kazakh young lady walking in the street to introduce himself in Kazakh language, most likely, she will ignore him. In most cases, this situation does not occur if people use Russian language on first encounter.
Because today Kazakhstan is a bilingual country, it’s useful to know both languages, Kazakh and Russian. Everyone is free to choose which language to speak.
Russian was declared the second official language. Government papers, newspapers and magazines are written both in Kazakh and Russian. All schools and universities have two types of classes: Russian and Kazakh. TV and radio programs have both language versions.  Some people question themselves on why should they even know the Kazakh language when Russian is the main communication tool. They speak Russian to their job partners, families and friends. It is (Russian language) understood by most country fellows. In the first place, language is closely related to nation’s history, culture, its traditions and customs.  Language is the foundation for turning a big community to the whole nation.  Moreover, language is the key for understanding the nation’s culture. There is no person in the world who would know traditions or culture of the nation well, while not speaking their language. In order to understand foreign culture, people first learn foreign language to speak to the native people.
Kazakh language is a tool strengthening Kazakhstan’s statehood. Therefore, a lot of activities are to be held in the country to improve Kazakh language skills for all citizens of Kazakhstan. “If we start teaching Kazakh at the kindergartens we will achieve certain results. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan included in his annual Message the importance of developing nation’s Kazakh language skills. Several projects are being prepared to be executed in all areas. For example, free Kazakh lessons will be available for everyone: authority bodies, students, workers from different organizations. These activities are worthy of doing only if people themselves desire to participate in them and will understand the importance of knowing native language. Kazakh will be both official and state language, however, this doesn’t discriminate other nationalities living in Kazakhstan. On the contrary, they are encouraged to learn Kazakh language to understand Kazakh culture better. Other languages are highly respected in Kazakhstan and will be saved thanks to hundreds of different nations occupying the country.  Altogether, it is beneficial to know several languages, but first and foremost people should know they own language perfectly and try to preserve it. Kazakhstan is a young independent country struggling to maintain the respected place among the most highly developed countries in the world. One of the main tools in achieving that goal is respecting its national heritages, including native language. That’s why Kazakhs should value Kazakh language, which is so closely related to their bright independent future.
The research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of the problems arising in the process of language politics in the research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of the problems arising in the process of language politics implementation is descent of government control in approved legislative acts fulfillment and in ineffective financial funds granted by the state budget for actions in the field of language politics disbursement.
In general, the authors have drawn a conclusion that country’s language policy is not effective enough. The study determines the optimal way of improving the country’s language policy is the maintaining of the balance between intention to raise the status of Kazakh language and state support for other ethnic languages in the Republic. The practical value is that the study may be asked for comparative analysis of language politics pattern of Republic Kazakhstan and other countries. The submissions also can be regarded as a basis of practical recommendations for language politics improvement, presentation is descent of government control in approved legislative acts fulfillment and in ineffective financial funds granted by the state budget for actions in the field of language politics disbursement. In general, the authors have drawn a conclusion that country’s language policy is not effective enough. The study determines the optimal way of improving the country’s language policy is the maintaining of the balance between intention to raise the status of Kazakh language and state support for other ethnic languages in the Republic. The practical value is that the study may be asked for comparative analysis of language politics pattern of Republic Kazakhstan and other countries. The submissions also can be regarded as a basis of practical recommendations for language politics improvement.
The educational system in Kazakhstan is conducted in two languages — Kazakh and Russian and consists of several levels of state and private educational establishments: infant schools, elementary (or primary) schools, comprehensive schools, colleges and academies. The constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan fixes the right of citizens of the republic on free-of-charge secondary education which is obligatory. The constitution prohibits any discrimination on the basis of language or ethnicity and guarantees equal rights in education regardless of nationality. Children start school at the age of 7 and finish at 17. As a rule a child attends the school, located in the neighborhood. However, in big cities there are so-called special schools, offering more in depth studies of the major European languages (English, French, German) or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics and children, attending one of this may have to commute from home.
The first stage of education in Kazakhstan is elementary (or primary) school for grades one through four. The second is secondary school for middle grades from five through nine. Upon graduation from secondary school students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school (high school -senior grades 10-11) or entering a vocational or technical school. Both of these schools are meant to provide one, along with the certificate of secondary education with a number of useful skills (e.g. those of an electrician, technical or computer operators.) Having completed one’s secondary education, one can either become a part of work force or go on college (institution of higher learning-Institute).
To be admitted to the institute one has to pass a series of oral or written tests. Students may get free-of-charge higher education in the higher educational institution and the limited number of the state grants is given each academic year on a competitive basis. Some college departments (law, journalism, foreign language-especially English) have dozens of applicants for one prospective student’s position. The system of higher education prepares highly — skilled experts on economy, transport, agriculture, medicine, languages and others. Today the young people of Kazakhstan have the opportunity to choose and acquire various types of education and build their lives according to their ambitions.
Studying of foreign languages and development of computer skills of pupils is of a special importance. More opportunities appear for the interested persons to be trained abroad on the basis of local and state grants, scholarships.
The current research aims to investigate English teachers’ ideas towards the implementation of the curriculum for teaching English as a third language to grades 1-4 and the organization of English Language Teaching (ELT) in primary schools in the conditions of multilingualism in Kazakhstan. Implementation of ELT into Primary Schools is innovative process demanding an assessment, development and practice of pedagogical innovations. In the condition of a language situation in Kazakhstan, ELT in primary schools demands the system decisions connected with its standard, scientific and methodical research, staff teaches and resource providing. The authors made the analysis of international experience, which is correlated with the state of early English language education, typical of modern Kazakhstan. On the basis of the comparison problematic aspects of this process are indicated and presented in the form of the organizational and pedagogical conditions of English language teaching at early stage in Kazakhstan. The data for the study is gathered from 105 primary school English teachers from different school via a questionnaire. The questionnaire has closed and open-ended questions and aims at finding teachers views about the starting age/grade for language learning, the type of teachers’ professional development for English teaching in primary schools, modern teaching materials (programs, curriculum and instructional kits (CIK), methodological literature, etc.), activities which are used in primary schools by language teachers. Analysis of the problem enables to reveal that along with the positive experience some school have had in teaching English language to young learners (ELYL) from the 1st grade, most schools have not yet made a transition to the system organization of teaching foreign languages in the primary school.
The necessity of using innovative educational technologies in English language teaching in primary school is substantiated in the article. Complex of using innovative educational technologies for primary school students teaching are described. Factors affecting communicative competence development are analyzed.
Introduction: in the scientific and technological progress and international cooperation it is strategically vital that every sphere of life keeps pace with the times. Today we are witnessing educational evolution aimed at achieving a qualitative breakthrough in preparation of national specialists, integration of Kazakhstan into world education and information area and transition from import knowledge to export. The State Programme of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011- 2020 (SPED) is the foundation document driving education reform in the country. In the message of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbaev to the people of Kazakhstan “Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050, new political course of the established state” one of the priority is the role of education in the development of Kazakhstan society.
The main quality determining the level of intellectual development of an individual today is his ability to think and orientate quickly in the flow of information and flexibly respond to scientific and technological innovations. Consequently, the main objective of current education is formation of such competitive intellectual nation since school times. Special role in realization of intellectual potential of the country is given to schools of new generation – the schools of a new type.
The modern requirements to educational process are closely linked with development of science, technique, culture, economy, technology and social sphere. The school aims as one of its tasks – making the condition to form a personality of a schoolchild, who is capable to further self-development, self-education, interaction and cooperation to be creative and active personality. Statement of Problem:  today it became obvious that it is needed to manage not the personality, but the process of its development. And this means that the priority in the work of the pedagogue is being given to modes of mediated pedagogical influence: knock-on methods, slogans and watchwords produce rejection, excessive didacticism, edifying quality produce abstinence, in place of it to the first plan comes dialogic methods of communication, joint search of truth, the development through creating of educating situations, varied creative activity.
 
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